108.1 Define the term aircraft handling.
Aircraft handling is a general term that describes any
movement of aircraft or associated equipment.
108.2 State the purpose of
standard aircraft taxi signals.
Used by all branches of the Armed Forces so that there
will be no misunderstanding when a taxi signalman of one service is
signaling a pilot of another.
108.3 State the vehicle speed
limits on the flight line and around the aircraft.
The speed limit within 50 feet of aircraft is 5 mph.
Along runways, taxiways, parking ramps and work areas it is 10 mph.
108.4 State the maximum towing
speed of an aircraft.
As fast as the slowest walker.
108.5 Name the 4 categories of
tie down requirements.
- Heavy weather
The navy uses the TD-1A tied down chain. It's working
load is 10,000 lbs. It weighs 10.5 lbs. The length is 1'6"
minimum to 9'10" maximum.
108.6 State the purpose of the
emergency shore based recovery equipment.
In an emergency situation, such as a blown tire, an
indication that the landing gear has not locked, the pilot is sick,
or any one of the numerous emergencies that could arise-you must
arrest the aircraft and stop it in the shortest distance possible.
This is to minimize the chance of an accident that could cause injury
to the pilot and crew or damage to the aircraft.
108.7 State the purpose of the
MA-1A overrun barrier.
Designed to stop aircraft not equipped with tail hooks
but the aircraft must have a nosewheel for the barrier to be
effective. The MA-1A is always in a standby status, in case there is
an aborted takeoff or an emergency overrun landing.
108.8 State the minimum personal
protective equipment required on the flight line and ramp areas
during the following operations:
Routine maintenance- The work area shall be
assessed as to hazards, which may be present. Each worker shall be
given and briefed on the use of the proper PPE for that area.
- Flight operations- All
personnel whose duties require them to work on the flight deck shall wear:
Jersey, with the appropriate color as noted by the
position of the individual; i.e. Plane Captains wear brown jerseys
Flight deck shoes
108.9 Identify the safety hazard
areas associated with the following:
Intakes- The air intake ducts of operating jet
engines are an ever present hazard to personnel working near the
ducts of the aircraft. They are also a hazard to the engine itself if
the area around the front of the aircraft is not kept clear of
debris. The air intake duct may develop enough suction to pull an
individual or hats, glasses, etc., into the intake. The hazard is
greatest during maximum power settings.
- Exhaust (engine and APU)- Jet
engine exhausts create many hazards to personnel. The 2 most serious
hazards of jet engine exhaust are the high temperature and high
velocity of the exhaust gases from the tailpipe. High temperatures
can be found up to several hundred feet from the tailpipe. The closer
you get to the aircraft, the higher the exhaust temperatures. When a
jet engine is starting, sometimes excess fuel can accumulate in the
tailpipe. When the fuel ignites, long flames shoot out of the
tailpipe. Personnel should be clear of this danger area at all times.
- Propellers- Personnel should
NOT approach or depart an aircraft with the propellers turning.
Personnel should walk well around the propeller area at all times.
- Rotor blades- Personnel
should NOT approach or depart a helicopter while the rotors are being
engaged or disengaged.
- Hot brakes- Never face the
side of the wheel, as an explosion of the wheel will follow the line
of the axle, which may be outboard depending on the landing gear
configuration. Always approach the wheel from fore or aft, never from
108.10 Explain the significance of:
Runway numbering system- Runways are normally
numbered in relation to their magnetic heading rounded off to the
nearest 10 degrees, i.e. Runway 01: A runway heading of 250 degree is
runway 25. If there are 2 runways whose centerline is parallel, the
runway will be identified as L (left) and R (right) or 36L or 36R, if
there are 3 parallel runways, they are identified as L (left), R
(right), or C (center).
- Threshold markings- Runways
200 feet wide have 10 stripes marking the landing threshold, each 12
feet wide by 150 feet long. For runways that are less than 200 feet
wide, the markings cover the width of the runway less 20 feet on both
sides. These markings designate the landing area.
- Airfield lighting system- Procedures
for the operation of airport lighting are in FAA Handbook 7110.65.
Operation of the airport lighting at controlled airports is normally
the responsibility of the tower. When the airfield is closed, all
associated lighting is shut down with the following exceptions: 1.
Navigable airspace obstruction lights 2. Rotating beacons used as a
visual orientation aid in a metropolitan area. Airport lighting
systems are standardized by the Air Force, Navy, and FAA to present a
uniform and unmistakable appearance. These standards specify the
location, spacing, and color of lighting components in use.
- Runway/Taxiway marking system- Runway
lights are installed to provide visual guidance at night under low-visibility
conditions during aircraft takeoff and landing operations. Taxiway
lights are blue. Their spacing is variable. Two blue lights, called
entrance-exit lights, are spaced 5 feet apart and are placed on each
side of a taxiway entrance to or exit from a runway or parking area.
The taxi lights are turned on as soon as the pilot of an aircraft is
cleared to taxi out. They are turned off when the aircraft is on the
runway or another taxiway. For inbound aircraft, they are turned on
as the aircraft approaches the taxiway and turned off when the
aircraft is parked.
- Arm/dearm areas- An area
where ordnance is changed from a state of a safe condition to a state
of readiness and vice versa. All evolutions are conducted using the
individual stores loading manual/checklist. The area ahead of or
behind and/or surrounding the aircraft shall be kept clear until all
weapons/ordnance are completely safe. When aircraft are being taxied
from the landing area to the dearm area, care must be taken to
minimize exposure of the armed ordnance to personnel and equipment.
- Overrun area- Provides a
reasonably effective deceleration area for aborting or overshooting
aircraft. The area may also serve as an emergency all-weather access
for fire-fighting, crash, and rescue equipment. Some are paved and
some have yellow chevrons across them. An area with this type marking
is a nontouchdown area for aircraft.
- Parking apron- Required for
parking, servicing, and loading aircraft. They are connected to the
runways by taxiways or tow ways. Parking sizes are based on the type
and number of aircraft to be parked and requirement for squadron integrity.
108.11 Explain the purpose of
Wind indicator- Provides a method for prompt
issuance of wind directions and velocities to pilots.
- Airfield rotating beacon- When
the airport is below VFR weather conditions, the airport rotating
beacon is used to identify the airport's location during darkness and
daylight hours. Rotation is in a clockwise direction when viewed from
above. The beacon is always rotated at a constant speed, which
produces the visual effect of flashes at regular intervals. The
flashing rate is 12 to 15 flashes per minute.
- Tower visual communications- A
coordination device between the radar controller and the control
tower. Visual communication provides a sequence of lights and
switches that supplement other circuits on the interphone system and
serve to reduce the number of voice contacts between the tower and
- Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN)
system- TACAN uses a bearing determining system to determine
aircraft position and distance from a TACAN station. The primary
navigation aid used by carrier based aircraft.
- Crash/rescue- Within the ship
damage control organization is the Crash, Salvage, and Rescue Team.
This team is the flight deck repair team. From its station in the
island structure it serves to effect rescue of personnel from damaged
aircraft on the flight deck, clear away wreckage, fight fires on and
make minor emergency repairs to the flight deck and associated equipment.
- Compass calibration pad- A
paved area in a magnetically quiet area where the aircraft compass is
calibrated. A minimum of one area is provided at each airport.
- Liquid Oxygen (LOX) exchange
area- A designated area which is used for the servicing of
aircraft which require Liquid Oxygen (LOX). Liquid Oxygen is a light
blue liquid that flows like water and is extremely cold (-297 degrees
F). It has an expansion rate of 860 to 1. It is a strong oxidizer and
vigorously supports combustion. The area must be kept free of
flammable or combustible materials such as wood, cloth, paper, oil,